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RAPES IN INDIA 2020

Criminological theory, there are three approaches to the etiology of rape with three different focii of attention:
(1) the social structural approach,
(2) the individual psychological approach, and
(3) the social learning approach.

RAPES IN INDIA
RAPES IN INDIA

Causes of Rapes in India Today

Coming to the causes of rape in India today, we confront two types. One set of causes is applicable to all societies but another set of causes is peculiar to India alone. Keeping this in view, the causes of rape in India can better be discussed under three broad heads: psychological, Socio-cultural, and social learning or life history of individuals. We are of the view that personality and character differences are basically influenced by the Socio-cultural contexts in which an individual is born and bred.

In other words, the character and temperament traits associated with male or female are influenced by, and are the result of, the Socio-cultural peculiarities to which its men and women belong. Barring the natural anatomical and bio-physiological differences among the sexes, there could hardly be any psychological traits or characteristics which are not influenced by the traditions, beliefs and values current in the culture. The socio-cultural milieu affects the behaviour of men and women from the beginning of the making of personality, and moulds and shapes their behaviour and attitude so as to conform to the prevailing socio-cultural standard.

However, while stressing the social and environmental influence on individuals, we do not disregard the impact of natural, biological and anatomical endowments in the sexes; the latter, indeed, do make a difference in moulding and developing their mental characteristics.

The psychological make-up, whether due to the difference in sexes or due to the effect of the Socio-cultural milieu, does determine the personal values of the person. In the Indian expression, the significance of quna (the natural psycho-biological properties) is no less important than that of desa (region, place) and kala (time, period). All these and other factors combine in influencing the behaviour of the individual. With this prologue, let us look at the causes of rape in India.

There are various psychological interpretations of rape which lay emphasis on different psychological factors. One psychological interpretation locates the causes of rape in the conflict between instinct and social pressure. It is argued that every man is endowed by nature with the sex urges, or, what Freud called, the libido. Although,the sex-urge is always active in all of us, there is a period of life when it is most intense and active. At that point, sex urges need satiation and channelization. But the society fails to provide an outlet simultaneously to all at that moment. The socially inhibited sex urges find outlet at times in rape.

‘Psychoanalytical approach’, draws its inspiration from Freud. However, there are several psychoanalytical explanations of rape. To begin with, some psychoanalysts trace the roots of rape in the mal-development of personality. It is argued that in the process of the development of personality, the superego of some individuals does not develop well and remains weak, due to which their id tendencies predominate and the ego grows weak. Such individuals fail to judge, and lack the capacity to control, the id impulses.

The ego of such individuals surrenders to the id impulses. Rape is the result of such maldevelopment of personality: many of the mal-developed individuals become sexually perverse. Men with weak ego and superego are guided by the pleasure principle and, sometimes, indulge in sexual assault to satisfy the id impulses.

According to the third psychological explanation, many men suffer from several socio-pathic sexual deviations such as exhibitionism, sadism, masochism, homosexuality, zoophilia, to cite a few. Sexual deviations relevant to rape are voyeurism (compulsion to look at scantily clothed or naked bodies, usually of the opposite sex), fetishism (when sexual excitement is produced by the sight, touch, or smell of an article of clothing, or some part of the body not usually associated with sexual activity), and redophilia (involves sexual interest in heterosexual activity with a child), among others.

The psychodynamics of these and other sexual deviations are quite complicated. Though there is enough room for disagreement as to whether or not some of them are really associated with rape, it can be reasonably said that some of these and other deviations may be symptomatic of the crime of rape, particularly when these disorders cause the individual to make a nuisance of himself.

Rapes in India; Theories to rape
Rapes in India; Theories to rape

Causes of Rape in the Life History of Individuals: RAPES IN INDIA

Rape, like other criminal behaviour, is the result of learning in interaction with other persons, especially intimate groups, in a process of communication. The learning of rape, like criminal behaviour, occurs within intimate personal groups—the family, the neighbourhood, the school, and the peer group.

Learning the crime of rape includes learning techniques of committing rape as well as the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes. Learning of criminal behaviour, including rape, varies in frequency, duration, priority and intensity, (Sutherland, 1947). Learning takes place in a Socio-cultural milieu. Since India’s Socio-cultural configuration, as briefly sketched earlier, is uncongenial for the woman, men learn to exert power over women in many ways, including rape.

We have already seen how Abrahamsen (1960) explains rape through socialization. According to Amir (1971), men learn to have the possession of the female body, as a property, and negative attitudes towards them in and through society. The role of socialization in creating a rape-prone attitude cannot be gainsaid. For instance, it is argued that the dissemination and the attendant publicization of the violence rates for different networks, sponsors, and programmes, might play a part in exerting influence. Also, the family has become an ineffective socialiser for children.

It is, thus, the Socio-cultural milieu which gives rise to rape. The status of women in our society is inferior inasmuch as they are treated as things for lust. Sex anarchy in the wake of the sex revolution has created sex addiction in the mind of men and women, which is manifested in pre-nuptial and extramarital relations. Rape occurs where sexual chastity is ridiculed, nuptial loyalties stigmatized as an antiquated hypocrisy, and sexual profligacy and powers are proudly glamourised. The family has grown weak. Individuals brought up in such a Socio-cultural environment are most likely to be rape-prone.

Rapes in India; Theories to rape
Rapes in India; Theories to rape


Here’s a list of some of the most horrific rape cases that have already been recorded in the first half of 2019.

1. A 16-year-old girl was gang-raped for 5 days in Andhra Pradesh.

2. A 19-year-old girl from Bihar was allegedly gang-raped by 6 men in front of her father.

3.A 4-year-old girl was raped in Aligarh after the accused lured her with ₹10 note and took her to a secluded spot.

4.Hathras Gang Rape Case: The latest case of violence against women in Uttar Pradesh to grab headlines, the 20-year-old woman from the Dalit community died from injuries on Tuesday after being attacked on September 14.

RAPES IN INDIA, Theories to Rape



RAPES IN INDIA, Theories to Rape



RAPES IN INDIA, Theories to Rape



RAPES IN INDIA, Theories to Rape



RAPES IN INDIA, Theories to Rape



RAPES IN INDIA, Theories to Rape



RAPES IN INDIA, Theories to Rape



RAPES IN INDIA, Theories to Rape



RAPES IN INDIA, Theories to Rape



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